Definition: Currency and securities exchange provided by multiple adversarial providers.
Applications: Enables Bitcoin and other digital "cash" and tokens without relying on trust in any one party.
Arizona companies: Camp BX, Coldti, Dash.


Definition: Keeping all things digital secure in a hostile world.
Applications: Network and Security Operations Centers (NOCs and SOCs) monitor company and state infrastructure and systems to prevent and counter malicious hacking attempts.
Arizona Companies: Acronis, Beyond Trust, Bishop Fox, ClearData, Cybertrails, Datasoft, GTT, InfoArmor, IntelliSpyre, Kudelski, Lumension Security, Mosaic 451, Netswitch, Technology Management, Trusona, Securosis, SimpleWan, SiteLock, Symantec.

Definition: Distributed ledger technologies. Tracks transactions in a distributed, fault tolerant system without relying on trust in any one party.
Applications: Enables supply chain tracking and digital notary services.
Arizona Companies: Arena, Nexus, Nori, Sweetbridge, Uphold.

Decentralized Technologies and Blockchain

Distributed Technologies and IoT

Definition: Improving infrastructure resiliency, reducing downtime and making the tech market more competitive.
Applications: IPFS, DAT,
Arizona Companies: Avnet, Benchmark Electronics, Charles Schwab, DataSoft, Deloitte, Dell, Garmin, Honeywell, IBM, IDC Technologies, Intel, Life365, LivaNova, Oracle, Serious Integrated, Symantec, Volteo, UnisLink.

Disaster Preparedness

Definition: Keeping community and business working in the worst of conditions.
Applications: Mesh projects.
Arizona Companies:APS, ACTIC – Arizona Counter Terrorism Information Center, Arizona Department of Emergency and Military Affairs (DEMA), Arizona Division of Emergency Management (ADEM), Homeland PSAs, Infragard, Palo Verde, SRP.

Hybrid Warfare and Election Hacking

Definition: Dangers of social media, user tracking and customization algorithms, and psychographics to manipulate the public.
Applications: Recommendation algorithms, Cambridge Analytica.
Arizona Companies:
Arizona Cyber Warfare Range, Hakdefnet.

Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence

Definition: Algorithms that allow computers to get better at tasks over time and handle work that formerly could only be done by humans.
Applications: Driverless cars, IBM Watson, Google Translate.
Arizona Companies: Axon (formerly Taser), GM, Intel, Local Motors, NXP Semiconductors, ON Semiconductor, Synaptics, Toyota, Waymo.

Security Vulnerabilities and Incidents

Definition:Technological issues putting companies at risk for cyber attacks, intrusions, and data breaches.
Applications: OPM Breach, Target Breach, Equifax Breach, Heartbleed.
Arizona Companies:
Early Warning, Emailage, Mosaic 451.

Technology Skill Building

Definition: Modern educational methods and systems to build a 21st century workforce.
Applications: Self directed learning, immersive training, Montessori schools, bootcamps.
Arizona Companies: Arizona @ Work, AZ StRUT, Generation Tech Support, National Initiative for Cybersecurity Education (NICE), West-MEC, Woz-U, Cybersecurity Council of Arizona.

Threat Economics

Definition: The financial and legal costs of warfare, malicious activity, and terrorist actions.
Applications: Prevention of such activity by increasing costs and reducing opportunity.
Arizona Companies: 41st Parameter, Axon, Beyond Trust, Clean Router, Continuum GRC, Early Warning, Trusona.